The National Observatory of Athens (NOA) was established in 1842. Today it is one of the largest research centers in Greece. The activities of NOA are organized in three institutes staffed with high quality scientific, research and technical personnel: the Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, the Institute of Environmental Research and Sustainable Development and the Geodynamics Institute. NOA carries out state-of-the-art basic and applied research in collaboration with other world-leading research centers. NOA’s research activities are focused on the terrestrial interior, the Earth’s atmosphere, the near-Earth’s space, the deep space and the astronomical Universe. Basic and applied research is conducted by using observational data from hundreds of ground-based stations and several space probes. The Centre, with its rich scientific outcomes and activities, is linked to entrepreneurship, culture, education and the popularization of science. NOA offers critical social services, such as a daily monitoring of seismicity and issuing earthquake alerts to the Greek State Authorities on a 24/7 basis, weather forecasting, forest fires monitoring, ionospheric activity recording, space weather predictions for the European region, continuation of a 150 years long climatic dataset and operation of one of the largest European telescopes. It also provides the national gate to the European Space Agency.

NOA is the overall coordinator of T-FORS and will therefore be responsible for ensuring that the project delivers the expected outcomes within the required time and budget.

NOA contributes in the research tasks with the development of Machine Learning methodologies based on the novel ARNN ML Learning method for the forecast of LSTIDs using features and labels registered in the TechTIDE database, also operated by NOA. The database will be enhanced with additional records, from synchronized Digisonde soundings between Athens Digisonde and other Digisonde stations. NOA will also convert the MSTID climatological model to a software code. NOA team is formed around space and solar physicists, IT experts and data scientists, HF and GNSS data experts to support the interdisciplinary character of the project. NOA is also in charge for the development of the T-FORS IT system that will run the forecasting model codes and will release the results in a user-friendly format.





Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) was founded in 1936 by Gugliemo Marconi, and the mission of the institute was “promoting, executing and coordinating studies research on geophysical phenomena and their applications”. Originally named as Istituto Nazionaledi Geofisica (ING), through more than 70 years of activity, ING has been pursuing that aim both providing important contributions to basic geophysics and accomplishing duties to the community. In 2000 ING was merged to other Italian scientific institutions dealing with volcanic, seismic and geochemistry research and monitoring. The new Institute, named Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is a government institution, under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, University and Research, that, with more than 1000 people employed, is one of the most important scientific institution in Europe devoted to studies in geophysics, and in seismic and volcanic hazards.

INGV will coordinate the development and validation of the LSTIDs ML learning forecasting algorithms. INGV is experienced in the development of ML learning techniques for ionospheric forecasting purposes and in the development of operational tools (including ML learning-based TEC forecasting) in the frame of IPS project and PECAUS consortium. Those tools, together with ionospheric data, are available in real-time in INGV eSWua web portal. INGV will also develop models using the GRU and GAN ML Learning techniques. INGV will integrate the Italian Digisonde stations in the T-FORS operations and GNSS data from European networks.




The Observatori de l’Ebre (OE) is a Research Institute founded in 1904 to study the Sun-Earth relationships. OE is governed by a Non-Profit Foundation belonging to the Ramon Llull University (URL) as University Institute and it is a Coordinated Center of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). Over the years it has excelled in the study of earth currents, atmospheric electricity, solar, geomagnetic activity and the terrestrial ionosphere. Currently, OE carries out two research lines: a) Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, and b) Hydrology and Climate Change; being active (with national and international based projects of research and development) in both of them. The research activity of the group of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy embraces the monitoring and research of the variability of the Earth’s ionosphere and geomagnetic field, as well as the modelling of such variability ingesting available space data. We carry out topics of research that are unique in Spain and competitive at international level. Moreover, OE manages several geophysical observatories: in Spain and in the Antarctic Spanish Base; assuring the continuity and reliability of its observations, with more than a hundred years of history. This enables to develop specific research based on the deep knowledge of the geophysical variables checked daily and providing value added data and products for other research teams. OE is also aware of the importance of the education so that, it contributes to a PhD program at the Ramon Llull University. 

OE contributes in the TID identification techniques with D2D and vertical incidence data from Ebro Digisonde station and with the results from the HF-INT method, which is operated routinely, and the results are stored in the TechTIDE database. In addition, OE will contribute to the forecasting models validation using tilt data from vertical skymaps, which are suitable for the validation of both MS and LS TIDs. OE is also the leader of dissemination, communication and exploitation activities; it will define the overall strategy for the D&E&C activities based on previous successful contributions and systematic activities carried out in their home institute.




The Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) founded in 1833, is the Belgium’s leading research and services centre for meteorology and climatology, with also long-time observation and research traditions in geophysics, including ionospheric and space physics, atmospheric physics, and geomagnetism. The institute employs about two hundred people working in six departments at two locations in Belgium: Brussels and Dourbes. The RMI Ionosphere and Space Weather (ISW) section ( caries out regular ionospheric and space observations by means of an own vertical incidence sounder (digital ionosonde, see, GNSS signal receivers located in Belgium, and a cosmic ray detector. The ISW research activities are currently focused on the ionospheric disturbances and their effects on the technological systems dependent on radio wave propagation. The RMI research expertise, broad experience, and modern infrastructure are well recognised and the institute is regularly being involved in various international projects sponsored by the EC, ESA, GJU, and NATO.

RMI participates with the operation of synchronized Digisonde soundings between Dourbes-Ebro and Dourbes-Juliusruh. A new CDSS is under installation by RMI in Belgium and will be the second CDSS system in central Europe for MSTID detection. First observations are expected in 2023 and should be a great asset for T-FORS.




The Borealis Global Design Ltd. (BGD) is a consulting company established in 2015 in Varna, Bulgaria, to provide expertise on conceptual design, development, and operations of the ionospheric weather nowcast service using high frequency remote sensing radio instrumentation and highly specialized models of the ionosphere and trans-ionospheric signal propagation.

BGD is the leader of the strategy and capabilities activities of the project. It defines the strategies for the T-FORS quality control, services’ standardization and provides requirements for the transition to operations, given its experience from the ESPAS and PITHIA-NRF EC projects. BGD is also responsible to validate the performance of the software that process the results from the synchronized Digisonde soundings and to maintain the database where these raw results are stored. BGD will contribute to the LSTID forecasting using the capabilities of the LSTM and AMNN ML Learning methods, analysing the big data stored in the TechTIDE database and based on previous experience in ML Learning models.



USTAV FYZIKY ATMOSFERY AV CR, v.v.i., Czech Republic

The Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR (IAP-P) is part of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Within the IAP-P research institutions are combined in order to cover the whole field of science and humanities. The IAP-P was established in 1964 as a continuation of the former Laboratory for Meteorology of the Geophysical Institute. In 1994, the former Ionospheric Dept. of the Geophysical Institute joined the IAP-P, thereby expanding the research domain. Recently the principal activity of the IAP-P is scientific research of the Earth’s whole atmosphere from the boundary layer to the magnetosphere and the exploration of its space environment, monitoring and special measurements, their processing and transfer into worldwide data networks, and the development of special instruments for ground-based measurements and different Earth observing satellite missions. The IAP-P acquires processes and disseminates scientific information and issues scientific publications (monographs, journals, proceedings, etc.). It provides scientific assessments, professional opinions and recommendations, consulting and advisory services. In cooperation with universities, the IAP-P carries out doctoral study programs and provides training for young scientists. Within the scope of its activity, the IAP-P promotes international cooperation, including the organization of joint research projects with foreign partners, participation in exchange programmes for scientists and the exchange of scientific information. The IAP-P organises scientific meetings, conferences and seminars at the national and international levels and provides the infrastructure for research. To realize the complex atmospheric research, the IAP-P joints together five observatories: three meteorological observatories (one of them, the observatory Milesovka is in operation for more than 110 years), Pruhonice ionospheric observatory, which is in operation since 1958, and one satellite telemetry station) and operates five national and international CDSS networks. IAP-P also operates mirror site of the World Digisonde Database (DIDBase), the HPC facility Amalka and runs one of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) Regional Warning Centers for Space Weather - RWC Prague.

IAP-P contributes with observations from the Czech CDSS with MSTID detections. IAP-P will also contribute with synchronized D2D soundings between Pruhonice-Juliusruh and Pruhonice-Sopron to populate the TechTIDE database with additional data. Given the strong expertise in MSTID detection, the team leads the MSTID alerts task.




The Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP-L) has been founded in 1992 and is member of the research association "Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (WGL)". The institute is located near the Baltic Sea resort Kühlungsborn and owns a separate site on the island Rügen, close to Juliusruh. In addition IAP-L is a major partner of the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway. As associated institute of the University Rostock it is part of the teaching programme in physics. A total of about 90 persons is employed at IAP-L. The institute realizes an equal-opportunity and family-friendly human resource policy and is certified with the audit “berufundfamilie” ("career and family").  The Leibniz-Institute is one of the German main centers for Middle Atmosphere research and operates active cooperations with several international research organizations. The most important scientific topics at IAP-L are (a) exploration of the mesosphere and lower atmosphere, (b) coupling of atmospheric layers, and (c) long-term changes in the middle atmosphere.

IAP-L coordinates the development and validation of the MSTIDs climatology and probabilistic forecasting models. IAP-L will provide the climatological pattern of MSTIDs and the propagation pattern of MSTIDs generated by dynamic events of sporadic nature. Furthermore IAP-L will continue the synchronized Digisonde soundings between Juliusruh-Dourbes and Juliusruh-Prague to populate the TechTIDE database with additional data.




The German Federal Police (GFP) is a specialized force responsible for border protection, railway policing and aviation security. The federal structure of the Federal Republic of Germany gives the 16 states (Länder) the authority to maintain their own police forces within their territory, along with the right to pass legislation and exercise police authority. At the same time, the Basic Law provides for originary federal authority in central areas of law enforcement. Due to this division of authority, Germany has 16 state police forces and two federal law enforcement agencies, one of which is the Federal Police. The Federal Police carry out a wide variety of law enforcement tasks, in particular border protection, railway policing and aviation security, as assigned by Germany’s Basic Law and federal law, including the Act on the Federal Police, the Residence Act, the Asylum Procedure Act, and the Act on Aviation Security. With its approximately 40,000 staff, including more than 30,000 highly trained law enforcement officers, the Federal Police is an extremely effective police service which plays an important role in maintaining internal security in the Federal Republic of Germany and Europe.

GFP designs and implements on ground demonstrations using their HF direction finding antennas to determine the source of transmissions under quiet and disturbed ionospheric conditions. GFP contributes in the evaluation of demonstration results and in the design of the final T-FORS services, providing solutions for innovation development. GFP also develops all necessary actions to strengthen industrial innovation, including investment in key technologies (T-FORS users’ tailored products), support for small businesses (open access to data, services and software codes), address major social concerns, such as security from space for civil protection, ensure technological breakthroughs are developed into viable products with real commercial potential - by building partnerships with industry and governments. 




The geodetic and geophysical basic research at the Institute of Earth Physics and Space Science (FI) extends to the observation, modeling and interpretation of the physical status and processes of the Earth’s system; the development of related theoretical (mathematical and physics-related) and experimental methods and test instruments. The responsibilities covered by the Institute’s basic activity include the continuous observation of the solid Earth and the space around the Earth (geodynamics, geomagnetism and aeronomy); the operation of the national seismological network and service; the provision of data associated with international cooperation; and the operation of periodic surveillance systems. In connection with fundamental research programs, the Institute participates in the exploration of natural resources, the scientific analysis of natural hazards and the protection of critical infrastructures in Hungary and Europe. Recently initiated new research fields include research of the deep layers of the solid Earth; research of the impact of the Sun-Earth interaction on global changes; research in the field of space geodesy with focus on developing radar interferometry technologies and their application for geodynamic purposes, which revolutionize the observation of surface movements.

FI participates with the operation of synchronized Digisonde soundings between Sopron-Athens and Sopron-Pruhonice. Having long experience in TID studies, the team contributes in the validation of both LSTIDs and MSTIDs using the unique data collection offered by T-FORS. FI also coordinates the communication activities, which are based on the citizen science concept.




The Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) is the French national aerospace research centre. It is a public establishment with industrial and commercial operations, and carries out application-oriented research to support enhanced innovation and competitiveness in the aerospace and defense sectors. ONERA was created in 1946 as "Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aéronautiques". Since 1963, its official name has been "Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales". However, in January 2007, ONERA has been dubbed "The French Aerospace Lab" to improve its international visibility. ONERA carries out a wide range of research for space agencies, both CNES in France and the European Space Agency (ESA), as well as for the French Defense Agency, DGA (Direction Générale de l’Armement). ONERA also independently conducts its own long-term research to anticipate future technology needs. It focuses on scientific research, for example in aerodynamics for concrete applications on aircraft, the design of launchers and new defense technologies, such as drones or unmanned aerial systems (UAS). ONERA also uses its research and innovation capabilities to support both French and European industry. ONERA has contributed to a number of landmark aerospace and defense programs in recent decades, including Airbus, Ariane, Rafale, Falcon, Mirage and Concorde.

ONERA leads the demonstrations and evaluation phases of the project, which aim at providing the T-FORS service and organize on ground demonstrations. The results from the demonstrations will be evaluated taking into account their operational and innovation potential. ONERA also develops all necessary actions to strengthen industrial innovation, including investment in key technologies (T-FORS users’ tailored products), support for small businesses (open access to data, services and software codes), address major social concerns, such as security from space for civil protection, ensure technological breakthroughs are developed into viable products with real commercial potential - by building partnerships with industry and governments.